Storyboard and Misc – Studio 3 – Semester 2


20180417_193740.jpgConsidering the amount of printed out papers were quite thick and were at a total of 80 scenes, we wondered how long it would roughly be in a movie format. Which can be found RIGHT HERE!

In other words we have made some other tiny assets in the spare time we had.

Abashi circus.png

Abashi circus fennec.png

Some promotional posters of a circus in Abashi which is the continent where the story takes place in.

I have created some Alphas that really helps with texturing.

AAG alpha.png

Built to kill.png

Cargo bob.png


Friendly Alpha.png

Fuck you 1.pngFuck you 2.png

Hag unit alpha.png

Grin 2.png

Eat shit cunt 1.pngEat shit cunt 2.png

Bandage.pngObey qr code.png

Target Alpha.png

Unit 32.pngUnit 63.pngUnit lay-z.pngWest side 1.pngWest side 2.pngclock alpha.pngAlpha 1.pngCount to five.pngWattmetro.png

In one of the Alphas I had to design the logo of the Mayor “Albatatis” who controls the robots, his factory firm is called Arbak Industries.


Does the logo have any meaning behind it?

Yes as you can see the second A in ARBAK is shaped with an underline is to symbolize about the eldertree from our early drafts of the story. Because the Citadel where the mayor lives is created out of the biggest tree in all of Abashi, said to have connected and been the source of all the other living trees and grass on the continent and was blessed by the sun god. When Albatatis cut the majority of this tree down, he cut down the life support of all the other nature around him dooming the civilazation to forever live in a fading environment, inevitably leading to a desert as everything god dryer and dryer.

The sun god got angry with him and decided to punish humanity to forever live in this environment they had created themselves. He punished them by promising to always be the burning hatred in the sky who would dry out everything and make it inhabitable to regrow nature there. But as the climate changes, so does nature. So the humanity survived on water from cactuses and natural rain water. Until Albatatis manage to create synthesized water which he would obviously use as a power stance. Promising to end the water support of every citizen if anyone ever stood in his way.

His office is a giant citadel which is where the old gigantic tree stood, and it is built to look like the old tree. As it is quite symbolic of how he punished everyone for his actions and rose to power.

Now back to the logo, the shape of the old Tree kind of resembles of the letter “A”. The connected underlines are meant to represent the vines going through the earth connecting everything.

To implement this logo into the project as not only in the shape of a texture, I recreated the photoshop made logo in Illustrator as a Vector file which is not made out of pixels but rather lossless lines.


Then I imported the vector file in to Maya and created a beveled object out of the curves the program provided for me.

All I had to do now was some initial cleanup and then I had a 3D model of the logo.

Arbak model.PNG


Some additional Modeling for environments I have put together.


This is the scene where most of the alphas with words will go on each template to signalize whenever something occurs in the field such as “Intruder Alert” “Breach” “In Sector B” or “Emergency” “Lay-Z” “Is Eating Lard” for example. Just a couple of the combinations to put together.

Mts1.png  mts28.png  mts3.png

This Scene is a parody from the opening of a Team Fortress 2 animated movie called “Meet The Spy”

Image result for meet the spy board

Which we are really forward about, so that no one thinks we are deliberately trying to rip off  a scene from another film without giving them the credit for it, because that’s what you have to do when you are making a parody about something.

Which is why we included a tiny easter egg to kinda poke fun about this in the alphas we are going to put on the board itself.

mts35.png   mts47.png   mts59.png

Which is why we decided to address this and poke fun at it.

Could this project be in potential problems about breaking the copyright of Valve Corporations IP for making something very similar to the opening scene in “Meet the spy”?

Absolutely not. It’s heavily referenced and inspired but has some differences here and there. Even though it is not entirely similar we still looked in to the matter legally, and conducted research. What we found out which greenlit us to go for this funny idea of making fun of Team Fortress 2 and kind of referencing it in our animated short, was the fact that Valve Corporation actually endorse all of it’s consumers to make parodies and use their IP for whatever they want. In an issued interview, Head of Valve “Gabe Newell” even stated that their engine “Source” is being used by their consumers to mainly make pornography which they have no problem with.

In every Team Fortress 2 animated short, they have a title card with the title of the video. At the bottom, it says on every single one of them “Copyright LOLOLOL” which means LOL a common online term used as “Laughing Out Loud”.

So what this means is that they are not protective about their IP. In fact several fans have made several projects based on Valve IP’s for free, one of the biggest called Garry’s Mod, which is a modded version of their engine where you can pose assets and make pretty much anything your mind can come to.

To endorse this even more, they even specifically released their animation software for free on their platform called SFM, so that fans can use their assets to create free animated movies without having to worry about any sort of licensing.

All of these movies are monetized on youtube without any issue.




Modeling – Studio 3 – Semester 2


Starting off with the Regular sized robots vehicle, With a bit of reference taken from the classic american choppers that are over the top fancy and expensive, I went ahead and modeled the first half of it.

Image result for american chopper

Final Hoverbike.PNG

Why does it only contain one wheel?

As I mentioned earlier, the setting is set in a Junker era where they only use spare parts, But I like to include a tiny piece of high tech to every model I make, similar to the hoverboard. This was taken inspiration out of watching the First Iron Man movie

Where Tony Stark built a really improvised armor out of spare parts and scrap he could find in the cave he was held captive in. The only touch was that he made a high tech arc reactor to power the armor.

So as for the vehicles, they are levitated above the ground with a Gravity Stabilizer.

Final Hoverbike hoverthing.PNG

The gravity stabilizer is originally taken from the hoverboard I made last semester, which makes sense in the lore to the fact that the Rebels plunder and scavenge their tech from the robots.

Final Hoverboard hoverthing.PNG

As for the bigger robots being bigger and heavier they needed a stronger lift that would not break the Gravity Stabilizer.

Oskar started cooking up a reference for the transportation of the big robot while I was working on the Hoverbike.


Final CargoBob.PNG

Why does the front look like a face?

Originally we started looking into planes and helicopters being piloted by a robot sitting at the top, driving the thing. Oskar had a suggestion that we make the Helicopter a robot as well and called it Cargo-Bob. Which was actually a ridiculous suggestion, but that’s why we implemented it. Because everything that is silly and unserious will break the serious tension going on in the video even though it is a comedic action animated short.

Final CargoBob face.PNG

How does the helicopter work?

We started looking into different helicopters to take inspiration from. Initially it would not make sense to make a standard main rotor and tail rotor like the common helicopters have.

We started looking into multiple Tandem rotors such as Chinooks have. But we were scared that would cover the whole viewpoint for the pilot and rather hide it from being seen which was also a crucial point to have.

We started thinking about implementing the rotors from the side and therefor we created it into a tiltrotor aircraft which would allow it to rotate it’s propellers any direction it wants, allowing it to open and close the doors, take off from both VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and horizontally.

There is only a few aircrafts that can do this and the most common one is the Osprey which we decided to take huge reference points from.

Image result for osprey aircraft

Final Cargobob Osprey.PNG

How will this aircraft manage to land with wheels due to the heavy amount of sand in such environments as deserts?

We had a long discussion about how it should be able to land. The wheels would not work at all and we needed something that would allow it to levitate above the course sand in order not to damage any part of the aircraft. The regular landing gear skid of the aircraft is usually very vulnerable and is not meant for VTOL aircrafts.

Are you planing on creating a aircraft that has the possibility to preform a VTOL landing and a regular horizontal landing?

That is the exact idea we are trying to solve. Luckily, Oskar mentioned Sponson aircrafts which have the capability to land in both water and on land, which extends the hull further above the surface in order to prevent it from taking damage.

Now since sand have the same similarity as water and acts in the same way, we implemented this on our beloved Cargo Bob as well.

Final CargoBob Landing things.PNG


The Laser Boomstick

Final Laser Boomstick.PNG

Its a sawed off double barreled Remington shotgun loaded with shotgun bucks filled with the laser energy from the differnet crystals.

This was inspired by the other big blockbuster called Evil Dead. Where the main character Ash Williams goes around carrying his Iconic Boomstick, which is where I got the name from.

The Electric Swatter

Final Electric Swatter.PNG

This model was created from Oskar’s concept where he had a Baseball bat wrapped in barbedwire hooked up to 2 batteries making them electrical.


Similar to the Electric Swatter, we wanted something our main character could potentially throw from a distance to take out robots and retrieve after wards.

Thats how we came up with the Chop-Stopper.

Final Chop-Stopper.PNG

Being a small axe where the handle is made out of shock resistant rubber and hooked up to a bicycle breaker (similar to the baseball bat) which is again hooked up to batteries attached to the metal blade.


Modeling – Studio 3 – Semester 2

Update from last post, Oskar got together with Julian Holm and made an amazing concept for the robot!

bot 1.5.png

I specifically asked for a robot inspired by the B1 Units from Star Wars. Their choice to include a set of different heads is incredible and really smart. Gives a lot more choice to the modeler being me.

Image result for B1 unit star wars

“B1 Unit” – Star Wars Wikia

Is it bad that it is inspired from such a big blockbuster?

That’s the interesting part. We have decided to go for the humor aspect of our animated short, and parodies or resemblances to critically known characters and scenes will have a humoristic impact on the audience watching especially when we make fun of it.

Is the robot going to have some originality or is it going to be exactly the same as the robots from Star Wars?

Yes they will have a lot of originality and not be a blank copy at all. This goes all the way back to our setting which is a junker era. A setting where everything is made out of scrap or junk they can find. While the robots in Star Wars are made in a futuristic setting where they have a quite futuristic look as well. The robots we make will function as they have a motor for a chest, meaning they will only truly die from bullets if you aim for their chest and not their head. However, electrocution is an alternative since they are completely made out of metal and an electric shock would fry all of the components inside making it malfunction or explode. One change I decided to implement is having piston powered elbows and knees instead of wheels, since living in a desert means they will rust, and rust will not work well on something so compact and dependent of movement.

Robot 1.PNG

This is the result of modeling after I followed the reference 1 to 1. As you can see it really looks like a silly friendly robot and not intimidating at all.

Why is it looking friendly and not intimidating?

Due to the fact that it is extremely skinny and tiny. Making a robot 1 to 1 is not always the best decision when modeling. You can take reference from something but it is important to remember to change decisions depending on what direction you decide to take, in this case I needed to make him bigger.

Final robot 1.PNG

This is the final edit of the robot exactly how I envisioned it.

What exactly is different aside from the added thickness?

The chest was made much bigger to compensate for the proportion of what is a shape of a humanoid. Even though this is clearly not a human, but a machine. We still thought it would be best to go a little bit closer to the humanoid shape but still have it remain an inhuman proportion.

What if you made it bigger?

That is something Oskar asked me after I had made the final version of this robot.

The end result ended up becoming this:

Final robot 2.PNG

This is what became of our Heavy Infantry Robot which is currently being implemented into the rough storyboards we are updating along side of this.

The story of this robot is that it’s only purpose is to be called into action as a back-up when the infantry robots fail at their job and need bigger guns.

What’s the arm made out of?

Going back to the first concept, Julian and Oskar talked about having either one or both of the robot arms as a gun.

I needed to figure out what gun the arm should be, the gun of the arm in the concept reminded me more of a 1919-A4

Image result for 1919 gun

Looking into this I also started looking at other 3D models of its brother gun the M240 being separated into parts to get a closer look at the individual pieces as it has the same function.


If the robot is bigger, shouldn’t the gun be bigger as well?

That is where the problem started. The gun would be too tiny, and I can’t just attach a cannon to it’s arm like it’s a tank or something. Because that would be too big. So I started looking at what common BIG gun video games have in common, and I landed at the iconic Gatling gun you find in video games such as DOOM and Team Fortress 2.

Minigun IMG.png

What if you made the robot EVEN bigger?

And of course Oskar also asked this too jokingly just as he did last time.

And of course I didn’t just let that joke go either, so I asked him to draw me a concept where we designed pretty much the same robot, but with a different style. We had a meeting all three of us and discussed what to implement and include for our BIG robot.

As a joke I suggested we could have a really fat robot stuck inside of a tank, being the whole tank. Where its legs are the lower part of the tank, and the upper-part is his fat body where the cannon is attached as his right arm to keep the same design in mind from the last sketch.

Oskar originally took this photograph from a Soviet T-80 tank from Tank Encyclopedia

tank bot.png

And drew it into a concept which looked extremely stupid, but we all loved it.

I spent some time trying to model the chest human like in the shape of an obese humanoid, but since it was a robot, I still decided to go with the style of having it relatively low poly, since that was the theme we were kind of going for along with the Chunky, rustic robots we already had.

Final robot 3.PNG

The robot came together very nice along with it’s gigantic size.

Final robot 3 2.PNG

Why is the robot tank wearing a backpack?

I decided to throw on the backpack, to give some explanation of where the tank-shells comes from and how the robot loads/re-loads ammo after each shot.Final robot size.PNG

The size difference between all the robots, our plan is that each robot will have a way of traveling. The tiny robots will get a hoverbike to ride on, The bigger robots will drop from a helicopter, and the tank robot is its own vehicle. Alternatively we thought about having the big robot as a transportation vehicle as well for the tiny robots having a deploy-able panel to open from behind the tank where all the robots could run out of.

I guess you could say I built in a “Back Door”

Final robot hatch.PNG

Procedural Animation – Week 7 – VFX with Models

So I made 4 procedural animated particle effects linked to a 3D model, for our VFX assignment.

The first 3 I managed to make them fit to a hobo-barrel. The particles were:

Ember, Fire and Smoke.

I started off modeling a barrel, and textured it in Substance Painter with a very rustic metal material.

Then I made the 3 particles which is randomly generated with intervals of movement, speed, direction and rotation,


All together it looks something like this.



As for the 4th particle effect, I decided to make some fog coming out of a manhole cover.



Together with the steamy fog coming up from it, it looks fairly real.


Considering that our scene will use a rather dim light, I think it will work just perfectly.

Procedural Animation – Week 6 – Animating the Character

Sadly, the motion capture did not work out as intended.

Most of the files got corrupted when we transferred them out of the program and into MotionBuilder on another computer. David said he was going to help out most of the students another day with this issue, since he was in a rush for a meeting. For some reason he never showed up again because he was constantly away or working with other classes. In other words not holding up his end of the deal. The Maya students was left out on how to import the mocap from MotionBuilder to Maya. So we figured we could use the few files we could actually open as references and keyframe animate everything in Maya.

Marcus made the rig for the character while I dealt with most of the big animations.


Full Run sequence. This consisted of 3 parts: Idle-Run, Loopable Run-Cycle, Run-Idle.



Power slam.

A power attack which was meant to stuck the enemy to the ground, disabling them for a few seconds.


Sticky teabag hook.

This attack was meant to stick the enemy on contact with the teabag, and pull them towards the character.


Sadly all of the animations made above was scrapped due to Marcus’ rig not being compatible with Unreal.

So we had to reanimate everything


Full run-cycle.



Power slam.

The new rig Marcus made had to work around the fact that Unreal did not support a rig with several loose joints. Trying to bind these joins made Maya refuse to export it.

Sadly we had to scrap most of the work and improvise a work-around.

At least we finished the animations, even though we had to do it twice.

Procedural Animation – Week 5 – Garbage” models and textures

After some talk with the group, we all decided the environment should have some garbage laying around. Since it’s going to be a shady and urban New Yorker street. Hans modeled a trash can and a high poly newspaper. So I figured I should make something similar but not entirely the same. So I decided to make a fully rig-able dumpster container, some shredded paper laying on the ground, the textured banana peel and Edvard wanted me to make a second version of the pizza which was rather more flat.

One problem I encountered while modeling this was to not incremental save the project 100.000 times, because when Windows decides it’s a good time to update I will definitely loose my project. So I ended up having to make the dumpster container all over again twice.

So I started off modeling the dumpster container and it looked something like this. Dumpster.PNG


I tried modeling it from reference off this picture

I really really liked the aesthetic of the signs, color and the rustic material all around it, so I decided to try to make something similar to my reference.




Applied substance painter texture onto the model itself and it looks much more like the reference picture.


I also wanted to make some flat planes on the ground of random garbage, like everything from newspaper pages and a Doritos bag. It was a fairly easy model, so I spent a bit more time on the texture itself.



Procedural Animation – Week 4 – Modelling Assets

So this time, we all gathered up in a meeting room and agreed on that we were gonna make a list where we followed up on who makes what. Edvard quickly went in google sheets and created this asset list

Assets list.PNG

We wrote on the left who was working on what, and when we finished it, we highlighted the object area green. We have managed it so that when you hover over the actual highlighted area itself, it takes you to a download link for the OBJ file and a picture of it.

Now that we had this system, I jumped straight into modeling the assets.

Getting a lot of help from Beatrice in 2nd year, I got a lot of insight in tips and tricks I could do in Maya, Zbrush and Substance Painter. Obviously this sped up my progress and made the assets better.

First tip I got was the Extrude shortcut in Maya “CTRL+E”. She gave me the tip that if I was gonna try to obtain a shape from a reference, it would be quicker and easier to use the extrude shortcut, and scale it in what ever way needed. Pressing “CTRL+E” again after moving the surface would create more subdivisions, which is a great tip for making a low-poly model. Considering that we are making assets for a video game, I have to think outside of what I have originally learned, since I am an animation student. Because in animation, there is usually not as big of a focus on low-poly compared to the game industry. This is because for a video game, the lower your poly-count is for the model you are making, the easier it will run on your computer.

First off I started making a banana peel, taking reference from super mario:


Using the extruding tip I got from Beatrice, I started off with a cylinder with quite few subdivisions. Extruding the surface and bottom, I achieved the look of a banana top, and I used the detach tool to kind of split it up like the banana peel in the picture above. I then cleaned up the model a bit by using the append to polygon tool, to recreate the surfaces I lost.

Stretching out the banana peel flakes, I merged some vertexes together on one side of the banana that originally had too many subdivisions to achieve the pointy tip.

This was what I ended up with:




For the future update: I will attempt to texture this banana using substance painter whenever I get the time.


Next up is the lamp post I made.

Using the same technique to extrude, I attempted to make an old lamp post. However, Edvard wanted something a bit more Urban rather than an elegant antique lamp post.

This was the lamp post I ended up making:

Lamp update 1.PNG

Lamp update 2.PNG

Lamp update 3.PNG

Lamp update 4.PNG

Putle made a bunch of cool drawings of Urban lamp posts which I will attempt to make in the future as well.


Concept drawn by Putle


I also looked at the concept drawings of some doors that Putle made.


Trying to obtain the shape and the style of the door on the left, while my intention is to add the graffiti from the door in the middle in Substance Painter later.

Using the Extruding tip, I quickly obtained the shape of the door. However I made the mail slot in the same model as the door. To save space in the poly-count, I got another tip from Beatrice that I should try to create it as a separate model with the door, and rather bake it in the texture of the door itself in Substance Painter to save some data and space.

This is the door I ended up with, quite a simple model actually, but still has a lot more refining to be done:

Door 1.PNG

Door 2.PNG


Now as for the last asset I spent the most time on is the pizza slice.

How I made this was by creating a low poly square with a lot of subdivisions. Shaping it into a triangle and forming the subdivisions to get thinner towards the tip, while the crust part is much more thicker.

After I did this, I created a plane and shaped it a bit with some bumps here and there. Placing the plane under neath the pizza slice so the tip was sticking out over the edge, I applied Ncloth tool to both of them, and generated the pizza so acted as a cloth. After fiddling around with the settings of Ncloth, I managed to get the pizza slice to look like an actual pizza slice. I added some pepperoni’s on top of it and baked it into the texture.

This was how it currently looked like:

Pizza slice 5.PNG

Using Substance painter and Photoshop, I created 2 textures I applied to the model it self.

The textures was created with hard surfaces in photoshop since we are going for a quite simplistic style:

Texture 1 – Pepperoni

Pepperoni 2.png

Texture 2 – Cheese

Pizza texture.png

After exporting these textures to substance painter, I spent some time brushing them on to the actual model by the help of masks.

Rendering some quite cool maps:

UV map


Normal map


Occlusion map


After getting the whole file ready for Unreal engine, I wanted to see how it looked like in Maya with the wireframes on. This is the result:

Pizza Slice 1.PNG

Pizza slice 2.PNG

Pizza slice 3.PNG

Pizza slice 4.PNG

For these screenshots I did not add the normal or the occlusion map, because I only wanted to view it with the wireframes on.

Next up, I will attempt to finish the Character model and some more of the assets on the list and last but not least, finish up what I have said I will continue on through out this post.


Procedural Animation – Week 3 – Character modeling

We have been ongoing about the character design for quite some time, after narrowing down the concept it was finally time to 3D model it. I started off by shaping a cylinder with a reasonable amount of subdivisions. Since this is the character model, I tried to keep it somewhat low poly, but of course not too low poly. Since it’s the main character.

After shaping the cylinder into a sphere, it started getting the shape I was going for. However, it was looking somewhat too round. I created the lid out of another cylinder, and used the extrude to form the shape. The handle was quite simple, I created a doughnut and refined it a bit to look like a handle. I created the nozzle out of a third cylinder and used extrude to shape that as well. Obtaining the form and shape by moving the faces, edges and vertexes, I ended up getting something that looked like this:

Teapot 1.PNG

Teapot 2.PNG

Teapot 4.PNG

It was starting to look good, however the shape was not quite what I was hoping for.

It felt too big and round, so I thought it would maybe look a bit better if I tried to make it more flat. But not too flat of course, because it should maintain the sphere shape. It ended up looking something like this:

Teapot 5.PNG

Now that the shape was starting to look better, the shape of the nozzle had room for improvement. I felt it was a bit too tiny and I was getting some good feedback from Marcus and Edvard too. Trying to make it a bit bigger, I also accidentally made it too long:

Teapot 6 BIG.PNG

Again getting some feedback, I gave it another shot at making it a tiny bit shorter.

Teapot 8.PNG

Now I was starting to get quite satisfied with the shape. There was still some room for improvement on pretty much everything, but I thought I could start making the head and legs in the meantime.

I used Ncloth and applied it to a sphere and passive collider on a plane. This gave me the possibility to experiment with the bounce settings. So it was like dropping a water balloon towards the ground without having it bursting. The sphere looked like a tiny blob at some point. When I got the shape I wanted, I duplicated it and continued on trying. I also at some point created a doughnut and made it the second passive collider. This caused the sphere to try and flow through a tiny hole in the doughnut, which made it look even more like slime.


Putting together the head and legs from these shapes, I was starting to get the character from the concepts. Adding subdivisions, scaling and shaping the edges of the slime, I managed to create a tiny blob hanging out from the nozzle which we will probably add jigglebone to later.

I also made the back side where the handle is a bit flatter to look more realistic, and I tried to shape the handle a bit differently, because it was looking too much like a doughnut. Take a look:

Goop boi 1.PNG

Goop boi 2.PNG


Although it was looking quite nice looking, it still needed some improvement. Edvard and Marcus pointed out that the legs was a bit too short and that the handle should be improved a tiny bit as well. After spending some time sending pictures back and forth asking for feedback, this was the final result:

Side view:

Goop 1.PNG

Goop 1 WF.PNG


Goop 2.PNG

Goop 2 WF.PNG

Slight perspective turn:

Goop 3.PNG

Goop 3 WF.PNG

The poly-count I ended up with was not too high considering our character is going to be quite small which is good.


Why this is good is because we then get more space for more assets or characters with more detail. Considering most of the assets we are making is low-poly, our game will run very smooth which is our goal to achieve.

Now that the character is done, all that is left to do is texturing it. I made the UV map ready in UV Layout and cleaned it a tiny bit. Take a look:


Now when I am going to texture it in Substance Painter, I want Edvard to assist me, since he is responsible for how the style of the character will look. What artstyle we will be using and color-palette.

I will keep you guys updated in the next blogs!




Animation 3 – The take on facial animation

I know I am very VERY late on this assignment and I apologize for this. I will have it completed either way. I have planned out a very specific reference I will be using.

Seeing how I always admire how people use their hands to describe something they are talking about, I wanted to do a parody on Jerry Seinfeld due to exactly this. Considering he uses his hands in a million different ways while he is talking, I had a go myself and the result was shockingly similar. I also found out Jerry had a skit about old people, and I decided to do a little twist on his skit to make it fit my recent animation about the old man smashing a button with his cane.

My parody on this skit

For this animation I will need to 3D model a simple TV and a Microphone. Considering I am very much out of time, I will rush through it on saturday and have most assets done by monday morning!


Animation 3 – OLD MAN IS DONE

So I have finally reached the stage where the animation is done. After the blocking stage was finished, I polished the animation a bit due to some shoulder and elbow movement which was not very natural. Cleaning up the small bits, I also finished the facial expressions. The end result ended up looking smooth and clean.






What a journey. From shooting references up, blocking out the important poses, polishing the blocking stage and finishing up with some facial expressions. Considering I had to shoot 3 different references I combined them all to be the entire sequence of movement.

This was the final reference I ended up following through out this project.